Gods and Goddesses of the Persians
One of the Daevas, Aesma Daeva ("madness") is the demon of lust and anger, wrath
and revenge. He is the personification of violence, a lover of conflict and war. Together with the demon of death, Asto Vidatu,
he chases the souls of the deceased when they rise to heaven. His eternal opponent is Sraosa.
A Persian demoness of illness, one of the Drugs. She personifies evil that is perceived or performed
by the eye (her name means "evil eye").
Mazda Ahura Mazdah ("Lord Wisdom") was the supreme god, he who created the heavens and the Earth,
and another son of Zurvan. As leader of the Heavenly Host, the Amesha Spentas, he battles Ahriman and his followers to rid
the world of evil, darkness and deceit. His symbol is the winged disc.
Ahurani is a water goddess from ancient Persian mythology. She watches over
rainfall as well as standing water. She was invoked for health, healing, prosperity, and growth. She is either the wife or
the daughter of the great god of creation and goodness, Ahura Mazda. Her name means "She who belongs to Ahura".
The Persian god of friendship and healing.
Aka Manah is one of the Daevas. He is the personification of sensual desire
who was sent by Ahriman to seduce the prophet Zarathustra. His eternal opponent is Vohu Manah.
The goddess of the underworld in early Iranian mythology.
One of the Amesha Spentas, Ameretat ("not dying", "living") is the personification
of immortality and the protector of plants. The fifth month is dedicated to her. Her eternal opponent is the archdemon of
The name of the seven divine beings who belong to the retinue of the highest
god, Ahura Mazda. The Amesha Spentas ("beneficent immortals"), come directly after him in the hierarchy of gods, and can be
compared with archangels. They are gods without being gods and creatures without being creatures. Together they fight for
truth and justice.
The ancient Persian water goddess, fertility goddess, and patroness of women,
as well as a goddess of war. Her name means "the immaculate one". She is portrayed as a virgin, dressed in a golden cloak,
and wearing a diamond tiara (sometimes also carrying a water pitcher). The dove and the peacock are her sacred animals. Anahita
is sometimes regarded as the consort of Mithra.
God of darkness, the eternal destroyer of good, personification and creator
of evil, bringer of death and disease. He is also known as Ahriman, and his name means "fiendish spirit". He is seen as the
personification of evil, he leading the dark forces against the hosts of Spenta Mainyu, the holy spirit, who assisted Ahura
Mazda, the wise lord, and final victor of the cosmic conflict. Ahriman introduced the frost in winter, heat in summer, all
manner of diseases and other ills.
God found in the water' who gives water to the people. He is a son of the water-god
Vouru-kasa. Apam-natat has also some military aspects and he keeps in check rebellion.
A demon who brings drought and aridity. He rides on a black, bald horse. Eventually
he was defeated by the god Tistrya.
God of Honesty.
Armaiti ("beneficent devotion") is one of the Amesha Spentas. She is the personification
of holy devotion, the daughter of the creator and represents righteous obedience. She is associated with the earth and in
that capacity she is the goddess of fertility and the dead, who are buried in the earth. The fifth day of every month and
the twelfth month are dedicated to her. Her eternal opponent is the archdemon of discontent, Nanghaithya.
Asha vahishta ("excellent order") is the personification of the 'best truth'
and protects the physical and moral order on earth. He is the most prominent of the (male) Amesha Spentas and the principal
adversary of the world of the demons. The second month is dedicated to him. His eternal opponents are the archdemon of lie,
Drug and the archdemon of apostasy, Indra.
God of the Sky.
The Persian demon of death whom no human escapes. Together with Aesma Daeva
he chases and tries to catch the souls of the deceased with a noose when they rise to heaven.
The Persian god of all fire and of purity, son of Ahura Mazda.
A Persian god of prosperity and wealth.
The Persian god of the planets and victory. He is the assistant of Sraosa, and
helps him when Sraosa rises the soul of the deceased from the body.
A war god of the Iranian Kassites.
In Zoroastrian mythology, the yellow demon of lethargy and sloth. He is the
evil genius which causes men to oversleep and to neglect their religious duties.
An ancient Persian demon of laziness who tries to prevent people from working.
He is one of the Daevas.
The goddess who personifies religion in Persian mythology. Her name means "that
which was revealed". Daena is considered to be the daughter of Ahura Mazda and Armaiti. She is one of the Yazatas.
In ancient Persian mythology they are demons who cause plagues and diseases
and who fight every form of religion. They are the male servants (or followers) of Angra Mainyu, also known as Ahriman. The
female servants are called the Drugs. Together they fight Ahuru Mazda (Ormazd) and his Amesha Spentas.
An ancient Persian god of death and demon of deceit and mendacity. He loves destroying life. Dahaka
is usually depicted with three heads, while scorpions and lizards crawl all over his body.
A Persian goddess. She is the daughter of Ahura Mazda.
In Persian mythology, a demon of enormous power, a ruthless and immoral
god of war.
An ancient Iranian female demon, the representation of the lie. She causes much
evil. She is the eternal opponent of Asha vahishta.
The ancient Persian goddess who protects cattle, children, and friendship. The
fourteenth day of the month is dedicated to her.
In ancient Persian (Zoroastrian) religion, the Fravashis (singular: Fravartin) are guardian angels
or protecting spirits. They guide the souls of the deceased to heaven. Each family or clan has its own spirit, which guards
and looks after only them. The Fravashis assisted Ahura Mazda in the creation of the world and, as riders armed with spears,
are the defenders of heaven.
A Persian water-demon who continually tries to devour the good things of creation.
In ancient Persian myth, Geus-Tasan is the divine creator of cattle.
The old-Iranian guardian of cattle. His name means "soul of the ox". He is the
servant of Vohu Manah.
A deified plant in Persian mythology whose sap, which has anaesthetic
qualities, was drunk during sacrifices. This deity ruled over all medicinal herbs and grants immortality. It is associated
with the purification of fire, and believed to have the power of providing husbands for unmarried women.
Haurvatat ("wholeness") is one of the seven Amesha Spentas. She is the personification
of perfection and is associated with life after death. She brings prosperity and health. The third month is dedicated to her.
Her eternal opponent is the archdemon of hunger, Tawrich.
A Persian sun-god. He belongs to the Yazatas, a group of good spirits.
In Persian mythology, the many-horsed sun-god.
The old Iranian god of warfare, courage and bravery.
Indra is one of the seven Daevas and the personification of apostasy. His eternal
opponent is Asha vahishta.
Offering". The Indo-Iranian goddess of the sacrifice.
Khshathra vairya One of the Amesha Spentas,
Khshathra vairya ("desirable dominion") is the personification of desirable dominion and is associated with metal. He is the
protector of the poor even though he would rather defend royalty. He enforces peace by using his weapons. His attributes are
the helmet, the shield and the spear. The sixth month is dedicated to him. His eternal opponent is the archdemon Saurva.
An ancient Persian god of the moon, one of the Yazatas. He is associated with the cow, which plays
an important part in old-Iranian mythology, and presides over time and tide. He is mentioned as an assistant of Vohu Manah.
The seventh day of the month is dedicated to Mah.
A Persian moon god.
An old-Iranian god of light, contracts and friendship. He also maintains the
cosmic order. Sometimes mentioned as the son of Ahura Mazda, he assists him in his struggle against the forces of evil, represented
by Angra Mainyu.
The god of fire and messenger between gods and men in Persian mythology.
One of the Daevas, and archfiend. Nanghaithya is the personification of discontentment.
Her eternal opponent is Armaiti.
Messenger-god in ancient Persia.
Persian spirits of great beauty who guide mortals on their way to the Land of the Blessed. They
also battle the Daevas.
The ancient Persian god of midday, the protecting deity of the south and of
The Persian divine angel of justice and last judgement and the personification of righteousness.
Along with Mithra and Sraosa he judges the souls of the dead. Rashnu guards the Chinvat bridge leading to heaven. He carries
the golden scales with which he weighs the souls at Judgement. Rashnu is one of the Yazatas.
Saurva is one of the seven main Daevas. His eternal opponent is Khshathra vairya.
In ancient Persian mythology, Spenta Mainyu ("holy spirit") is the god of life
and the personification of the good and the light. He is the twin brother of Angra Mainyu (Ahriman), the god of darkness,
with whom he fights an eternal battle.
Sraosa is a member of the Amesha Spentas. He is the
personification of obedience and the messenger of the great god Ahura Mazda. He also guides the souls of the deceased to find
their way to the after live. His symbolic animal is the cock, whose crowing will call the pious to their religious duties.
The seventeenth day of the month is dedicated to him. His eternal opponent is the archdemon Aesma Daeva.
In Middle Persian myths the messenger of the gods. He was sent down from heaven to announce to a
king that his last hour had struck.
In Persian mythology, one of the four leaders of the stars which fight for Ahura Mazda; the guardian
star of the west who conquers evil.
Vata The ancient Persian god of the wind and one of the Yazatas. The twentieth day
of the month is dedicated to him.
The Persian god of victory and the personification of aggressive triumph. God
of Vrahran Fire, the most sacred of all fires. It is a combination of 16 fires, most of which belong to those in the metal-working
trades. He punishes the evil done by man and demon.
appears in many shapes: bear, bird of prey, bull, camel, youth, warrior with
a golden sword, wind, etc. His appearance as a bird and bear were especially popular. The twentieth day of the month is dedicated
Vohu Manah Vohu Manah
("good sense") is one of the Amesha Spentas, and the personification of wisdom. He is the protector
of the animal world and is on earth represented by beneficial animals, especially the cow. He takes the souls of the just
to Paradise. The eleventh month is dedicated to him. His eternal opponent is the archdemon Aka Manah.
The world ocean in Zoroastrian cosmology; it is also the sea deity. Also, the heavenly lake whose
waters supply the world and in the middle of which grows the Tree of Life.
In Zoroastrianism the Yazatas are the deities to whom the hymns in the Zend-Avesta are addressed.
They are also the guardians of the celestial bodies and the messengers of Ahura Mazda. The chief Yazata is Mithra and some
of the others include Daena, Mah, Rashnu, Tistrya, and Zam.
In old-Iranian (Avestan) mythology, Zam is the deified earth. He is one of the Yazata.
The Persian goddess of the earth.
Zarich is one of the female members of the Daevas and the personification of ageing. Her eternal
opponent is Ameretat.
The primordial god in Persian religion, and the god of infinite time and space. Zurvan is the father
of the good god Ahura Mazda and the evil god Angra Mainyu. With children representing the two opposites, Zurvan himself is
regarded as a neutral god; one for whom there is no distinction between good or evil. Zurvan is also the god of destiny, light